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Exemplary proposals of turbines for a PWR nuclear power station are shown in Fig.3 [1 nuclear reactor, 2 – steam generators, 3 – main circulation pumps, 4 – HP turbine, 5 – LP turbine, 6 – generator, 7 – moisture separator, 8 – steam reheater, 9 – condenser, 10 – district heating heat exchangers, 11 – feedwater pump, 12 – backpressure turbine part, 13 – valve, 14 – DH turbine on a separate shaft, 15 – regenerative heat exchangers Fig. Simplified process diagrams of NPP systems with heat recovery for district heating [4] The extent of modifications and changes within an extraction-condensing turbine depends on heat consumption for district heating.Outside the heating season, if there would be no process steam demand, the turbine would operate at fully condensing mode, generating electrical power only.Due to a more complex structure required to ensure heat recovery, the cost of such a turbine would be higher than the cost of a standard condensing turbine.Then the Industrial Emissions Directive enacted on 6 January 2011, whose stipulations will come into force in 2016 and for the district heating industry in 2023, will additionally tighten requirements concerning SO and PM emissions, thus increasing interest in energy sources for power and heat generation other than coal.Development of new energy sources is also forecasted by the “Energy Policy of Poland until 2030”, which assumes that by the year 2020 the electricity demand will grow from the current level of 155 TWh to ca. Bearing in mind that some 60% of generation capacity is installed at sources at least 30 years old, it will be necessary to construct new sources with a high total electrical capacity.Construction of CHP sources is promoted by Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market.Thus, the existence of such a demand is a prerequisite for constructing new CHP sources.

In a nuclear power plant the most favourable solution is an extraction-backpressure turbine with steam extractions which may be used to supply district heating energy during a heating season, and which may also continuously provide process heat flow (steam).Yet due to different parameters of generated steam, the structure is considerably different.Polish power stations have superheated steam turbines (540°C, 18 MPa), while the turbines of the Swiss nuclear plant are supplied with dry saturated steam (5.5 MPa).The largest alterations should be expected for heat outputs exceeding 1800 MW.In such a case it might prove reasonable to use two or three separate shafts with separate generators (Fig. Currently there are no nuclear plants which would supply major amounts of heat to external consumers.

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Now this date has been moved to 2024 with the electrical output of the plant estimated at 3 GW.

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